San Marino

ABOUT San Marino

Country Briefs: One of the smallest nations of the world, located in the southern Europe and landlocked by Italy, situated in the Apennines, a little inland from the Adriatic Sea near Rimni, the oldest of republic in the world, San Diego Marino is a place worth visiting.

History reveals that the world?s oldest republic of the world was discovered in 301 AD by a Christian stonemason Marinus the Dalmatian when he had fled from the Dalmatian island of Arbe to escape the anti-Christian Roman emperor Diocletian.

Marinus chose to hide himself on the highest peak of San Diego Marino's seven hills, peak of Mount Titano. He settled there and formed a community according to Christian beliefs. Soon the landlady bequeathed the land to the small Christian community and the place was then known as "Land of San Marino". At present this very region is called the Republic of San Marino.

From 5th to 8th century, during the Lombard Age, San Marino was a fief of the dukes of Spoleto. The earliest form of government in this region was a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo.

The Arengo was basically composed of the heads of each family. Soon in 1243 the positions of Captains Regent were established to be the joint heads of state. San Marino's independence was recognized and established by the Holy See in 1291.

San Marino's territory that initially comprised of only the Mount of Titano expanded around 1463 when the Republic entered into an alliance against and also defeated Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta who was the lord of Rimni from 1417 to 1468.

Sigismondo's defeat made Pope Pius II give the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino and Serravalle to San Marino. After this the town of Faetano too willingly joined the San Marino republic. This comprised the final territory of San Marino that covers a mere area of 61 square kilometers on earth.

San Marino was thrice occupied by foreign militaries for a short while. In 1503, Cesare Borgia or Valentino occupied and governed the Republic of San Marino. After Valentino's death came the Cardinal Alberoni in 1739. But Alberoni faced strong rebellion by the civil disobedience movement in the state at that time.

Meanwhile on 8th October 1600, San Marino adopted its written constitution for the first time. But when the region was threatened of Alberoni's attacks, the residents appealed to the Pope Clement XII who recognized people's rights and independence.

In 1797 Napoleon Bonaparte recognized the state and so did the Congress of Vienna in 1815. However San Marino was again occupied in 1944 but that was the last occupation the state confronted. San Marino was passive and neutral during the First World War as well as the Second World War.


At present San Marino is the only and smallest of all Italian city-states that has survived. In 1988 San Marino joined the Council of Europe or the European Council and it became a member of United Nations in 1992. Currently the state is ranked 190th in terms of its area (61 square kilometers) as well on the basis of its population (around 27,336 people).

San Marino Municipalities
Municipality HASC FIPS Population Area(km.²) Area(mi.²)
Acquaviva SM.AC SM01 1,240 5 2
Borgo Maggiore SM.BM SM06 5,127 9 3
Chiesanuova SM.CH SM02 812 5 2
Domagnano SM.DO SM03 2,146 7 3
Faetano SM.FA SM04 795 8 3
Fiorentino SM.FI SM05 1,716 7 3
Montegiardino SM.MG SM08 672 3 1
San Marino SM.SM SM07 4,385 7 3
Serravalle SM.SE SM09 7,706 11 4
9 municipalities 24,599 61 24
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes. If periods are replaced by hyphens, these are the same as the municipality codes from ISO standard 3166-2.
  • FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4.
  • Population: 1993-12-31 estimate.
  • Area: Figures provided by Karem Abdalla.
  • Capital: Capitals have same names as their municipalities.
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